Marketing

Sobre la segmentación

Los norteamericanos gustan de la segmentación sincrónica, aman observar lo que se ve, aunque suene a tautología. Los europeos, y sobre todo los alemanes, gustan de segmentar diacrónicamente, aman observar lo que el ojo no ve, lo que sí ven los estudios históricos.

La demografía y el salario, por ejemplo, son aspectos sincrónicos, cosas medibles, “a la mano”. La etnografía, por su lado, es un aspecto diacrónico, algo que se da con el tiempo, algo que no está “a la mano”. Lo sincrónico es actual y lo diacrónico es histórico, o casi siempre es así.

Segmentar sólo sincrónicamente sirve para planear el futuro de nuestra marca, y segmentar sólo diacrónicamente sirve para comprender lo pretérito, las razones por las que nuestro mercado es como es. Si pudiéramos sintetizar los dos tipos de segmentación, tendríamos que atenernos a los cinco puntos siguientes:

1- Revisar el significado de nuestra jerga científica. Muchas palabras ya no sirven para designar actuales fenómenos sociales. La palabra “mercado”, por ejemplo, es obsoleta, lo es debido a la proliferación de miles de tribus urbanas o subculturas. La palabra “conformismo”, repudiada por los emprendedores y por la gente de la escuela `Law and Economics´, ya no habla de gente “mediocre”, y puede ser bien tomada por gente humanista, ecologista, altruista.

2- No caer en el embrujo de la vestimenta. La ropa ya no distingue del todo a las personas. El crédito, la imitación, la tecnología y muchas cosas más, han hecho que un obrero pueda vivir como un profesional, verse como un oficinista.

3- Determinar siempre si la generación a la que vamos a hablarle sufrió o gozó un cambio abrupto en su nivel de vida. Hay generaciones que nacen, que se desarrollan y que mueren en la opulencia o en la pobreza, pero hay otras que pasan de la miseria a la riqueza y viceversa. Los valores son más lentos que la tecnología, y hablarle del valor “astucia” y no del valor “trabajo duro” a un obrero que ha comprado un ordenador bastante caro, es un error.

4- Dejar de creer que la clase ascendiente adopta los hábitos de la clase de arriba. Posiblemente la clase de arriba esté siendo alcanzada económicamente por la clase de abajo, pero también puede ser tragada por ésta. Tal vez la `Proletkultur´ tenga más fuerza que la cultura pequeñoburguesa.

5- Evitar la sociología espontánea, es decir, evitar las segmentaciones fundamentadas en imágenes artificiales (fotografías, vídeos, películas, documentales o cualquier material no revisado por un sociólogo), en psicologías aprendidas en el `Reader´s Digest´ o en tradiciones moralizantes.

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